Updated: Feb 14, 2006
Asthenozoospermia - poor
motility and/or forward progression of the sperm cells.
or aspermia - no sperm at all is found
in the semen.
Cervical Dysplasia -
a premalignant lesion associated with human papillomavirus
(HPV) infection which, over time, can turn cancerous.
& Colitis - a chronic inflammatory disorder
that usually affects the lower small intestine (the
ileum) or the colon, but can affect the entire gastrointestinal
Cryotherapy - Cryotherapy
is performed on a woman's cervix after a biopsy confirms
cervical dysplasia or condyloma. It is performed on
an outpatient basis and takes approximately ten minutes.
During cryotherapy, a probe is placed
on the cervix and cooled to a temperature below freezing.
The probe is then warmed and the process is repeated.
Once freezing of the cervix is done, the probe is removed
from the cervix.
Dilatation and curettage,
commonly known as D&C is a process
in which the cervix is dilated and the uterus is cleaned.
Today D&C's are often performed using suction (as
opposed to the more agressive method of scraping the
One of the main reasons a D&C is performed
is when excess tissue needs to be removed from the uterus,
e.g., after an incomplete miscarriage where not all
the tissue associated with the pregnancy was expelled
Insemination - Intrauterine insemination
(IUI) using donor
sperm. Also known as AID - Artificial Insemination,
Donor (as opposed to AIH - Artificial Insemination,
Ectopic pregnancy - a
pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus.
Donation - The process by which a woman
uses another woman's eggs in order to conceive. This
process is always combined with IVF
and may also be combined with surrogacy.
(See our egg donation topic
to learn more.)
Endometriosis - Growth
of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The tissue
may attach itself to the reproductive organs or to other
organs in the abdominal cavity. Each month the endometrial
tissue inbreeds with the onset of menses. The resultant
irritation causes adhesions in the abdominal cavity
and in the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis may also interfere
with ovulation and with the implantation of the embryo.
embryo transfer. The transfer to the uterus of remaining
embryos resulting from IVF / ICSI that were frozen for
future use. (See our FET
topic for more information.)
- Eggs is retrieved from the IM - intended mother are
fertilized and implanted into a surrogate mother who
will carry a baby (who is not biologically related to
her) for the IPs - intended parents. Also known as GS.
- Contrast dye is injected into the uterus, through
the cervix. X-rays are taken to determine if there are
any abnormalities or in the uterus or fallopian tubes.
Also known as a uterine x-ray.
Hysteroscopy - a procedure
in which the doctor looks into the cavity of the uterus
with a small "scope". Hysteroscopy can be
performed either as an office or an outpatient hospital
procedure. It is mainly used as a diagnostic tool to
help evaluate patients suffering infertility, recurrent
miscarriage, or abnormal bleeding.
Sperm Injection, a single sperm cell is injected
into each egg. This procedure is performed as part of
IVF - in vitro fertilization
when a small number of sperm is available. It enables
fertilization of an egg even if only a single viable
sperm cell is available. (See our ICSI
topic to learn more.)
- Intra Uterine Insemination.
Washed sperm is inserted into the woman's uterus.
(See our IUI topic to learn more.)
- In Vitro Fertilization.
The process of creating an embryo outside of the uterus.
(See our IVF topic to learn more
about the process.)
MESA - microsurgical
epidydmal sperm aspiration. A process used to retrieve
viable sperm from men with sperm duct blockage or the
absence of sperm in the semen. Usually combined with
Necrozoospermia - no
live sperm were found in the semen.
Oligospermia or oligozoospermia-
low sperm count. Very few sperm were found in the semen.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
(OHSS) - A potentially life-threatening condition
in which the ovaries are over-stimulated during preparation
for an IVF cycle. Early warning signs include severe
pelvic pain, nausea, vomiting and weight gain.
Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS - A common condition
that affects the ovaries and the hormonal balance. Also
known as PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) and as Stein-Leventhal
Syndrome. (See our PCOS page
for more information.)
- One woman carries a baby for another. (See our surrogacy
page for more information.)
Teratozoospermia - A
low percentage of morphologically normal sperm were
found in the semen.
TESE - testicular sperm
extraction. A process used to retrieve viable sperm
from men with sperm duct blockage or the absence of
sperm in the semen. Usually combined with
- A surrogate mother goes through a process of AI (artificial
insemination) using the intended father's sperm. In
this case, the surrogate mother is biologically the
mother of the baby that she is carrying for another
Vas deferens - muscular
tubes through which the sperm is propelled during ejaculation.
Vasovagal response -
A condition in which the person experiences a slow pulse,
a fall in blood pressure, and sometimes fainting or
convulsions. It thought to be caused by a sudden stimulation
of the vagus nerve.
A Walk to Remember, held
during October, honors those babies who have died thorough
miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, or newborn
death. To find out more, see the Events page on the
SHARE Organization website.
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